HIV Infection and AIDS: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

  1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for HIV. Available at Accessed: June 16, 2011.

  2. Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings.MMWR Recomm Rep . 2006 Sep 22. 55:1-17; quiz CE1-4. [Medline].

  3. Qaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins R Jr, Owens DK. Screening for HIV in health care settings: a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians and HIV Medicine Association.Ann Intern Med . 2009 Jan 20. 150(2):125-31. [Medline].

  4. Reynolds SJ, Makumbi F, Newell K, et al. Effect of daily aciclovir on HIV disease progression in individuals in Rakai, Uganda, co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.Lancet Infect Dis . 2012 Jun. 12(6):441-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  5. [Guideline] Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. January 10, 2011; 1-174. [Full Text].

  6. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves first rapid diagnostic test to detect both HIV-1 antigen and HIV-1/2 antibodies. US Department of Health and Human Services, US Food and Drug Administration. Available at Accessed: August 12, 2013.

  7. Lowes R. FDA OKs First Rapid Test for HIV-1/2 Antibodies, HIV-1 Antigen. Medscape [serial online]. Available at Accessed: August 15, 2013.

  8. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults.MMWR Recomm Rep . 1992 Dec 18. 41:1-19. [Medline].

  9. Jeffrey S. FDA approves first antidiarrheal drug for HIV/AIDS.Medscape Medical News . Dec 31, 2012. [Full Text].

  10. Gao F, Bailes E, Robertson DL, et al. Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes.Nature . 1999 Feb 4. 397(6718):436-41. [Medline].

  11. Hirsch VM, Olmsted RA, Murphey-Corb M, Purcell RH, Johnson PR. An African primate lentivirus (SIVsm) closely related to HIV-2.Nature . 1989 Jun 1. 339(6223):389-92. [Medline].

  12. Popper SJ, Sarr AD, Gueye-Ndiaye A, Mboup S, Essex ME, Kanki PJ. Low plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 2 viral load is independent of proviral load: low virus production in vivo.J Virol . 2000 Feb. 74(3):1554-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  13. Popper SJ, Sarr AD, Travers KU, et al. Lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 viral load reflects the difference in pathogenicity of HIV-1 and HIV-2.J Infect Dis . 1999 Oct. 180(4):1116-21. [Medline].

  14. Mellors JW, Munoz A, Giorgi JV, et al. Plasma viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection.Ann Intern Med . 1997 Jun 15. 126(12):946-54. [Medline].

  15. Rodríguez B, Sethi AK, Cheruvu VK, et al. Predictive value of plasma HIV RNA level on rate of CD4 T-cell decline in untreated HIV infection.JAMA . 2006 Sep 27. 296(12):1498-506. [Medline].

  16. Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men--New York City and California.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 1981 Jul 3. 30(25):305-8. [Medline].

  17. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).Science . 1983 May 20. 220(4599):868-71. [Medline].

  18. Ascher MS, Sheppard HW, Winkelstein W Jr, Vittinghoff E. Does drug use cause AIDS?.Nature . 1993 Mar 11. 362(6416):103-4. [Medline].

  19. Korber B, Muldoon M, Theiler J, et al. Timing the ancestor of the HIV-1 pandemic strains.Science . 2000 Jun 9. 288(5472):1789-96. [Medline].

  20. Koopman G, Haaksma AG, ten Velden J, Hack CE, Heeney JL. The relative resistance of HIV type 1-infected chimpanzees to AIDS correlates with the maintenance of follicular architecture and the absence of infiltration by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes.AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses . 1999 Mar 1. 15(4):365-73. [Medline].

  21. Birch MR, Learmont JC, Dyer WB, et al. An examination of signs of disease progression in survivors of the Sydney Blood Bank Cohort (SBBC).J Clin Virol . 2001 Oct. 22(3):263-70. [Medline].

  22. Dyer WB, Geczy AF, Kent SJ, et al. Lymphoproliferative immune function in the Sydney Blood Bank Cohort, infected with natural nef/long terminal repeat mutants, and in other long-term survivors of transfusion-acquired HIV-1 infection.AIDS . 1997 Nov. 11(13):1565-74. [Medline].

  23. Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Fauci AS. New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.N Engl J Med . 1993 Feb 4. 328(5):327-35. [Medline].

  24. Pantaleo G, Fauci AS. New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection.Annu Rev Immunol . 1995. 13:487-512. [Medline].

  25. Weber J. The pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection.Br Med Bull . 2001. 58:61-72. [Medline].

  26. Frazer IH, Mackay IR, Crapper RM, et al. Immunological abnormalities in asymptomatic homosexual men: correlation with antibody to HTLV-III and sequential changes over two years.Q J Med . 1986 Oct. 61(234):921-33. [Medline].

  27. Schechter MT, Boyko WJ, Craib KJ, et al. Effects of long-term seropositivity to human immunodeficiency virus in a cohort of homosexual men.AIDS . 1987 Jul. 1(2):77-82. [Medline].

  28. Talal AH, Irwin CE, Dieterich DT, Yee H, Zhang L. Effect of HIV-1 infection on lymphocyte proliferation in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2001 Mar 1. 26(3):208-17. [Medline].

  29. Poles MA, Boscardin WJ, Elliott J, et al. Lack of decay of HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue reservoirs in maximally suppressed individuals.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2006 Sep. 43(1):65-8. [Medline].

  30. van Marle G, Gill MJ, Kolodka D, McManus L, Grant T, Church DL. Compartmentalization of the gut viral reservoir in HIV-1 infected patients.Retrovirology . 2007 Dec 4. 4:87. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  31. Talal AH, Monard S, Vesanen M, et al. Virologic and immunologic effect of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2001 Jan 1. 26(1):1-7. [Medline].

  32. Guadalupe M, Reay E, Sankaran S, et al. Severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in gut lymphoid tissue during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and substantial delay in restoration following highly active antiretroviral therapy.J Virol . 2003 Nov. 77(21):11708-17. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  33. Shacklett BL, Cox CA, Sandberg JK, Stollman NH, Jacobson MA, Nixon DF. Trafficking of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8+ T cells to gut-associated lymphoid tissue during chronic infection.J Virol . 2003 May. 77(10):5621-31. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  34. Guadalupe M, Sankaran S, George MD, et al. Viral suppression and immune restoration in the gastrointestinal mucosa of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients initiating therapy during primary or chronic infection.J Virol . 2006 Aug. 80(16):8236-47. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  35. Al-Harthi L, Marchetti G, Steffens CM, Poulin J, Sékaly R, Landay A. Detection of T cell receptor circles (TRECs) as biomarkers for de novo T cell synthesis using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA).J Immunol Methods . 2000 Apr 3. 237(1-2):187-97. [Medline].

  36. Hellerstein M, Hanley MB, Cesar D, et al. Directly measured kinetics of circulating T lymphocytes in normal and HIV-1-infected humans.Nat Med . 1999 Jan. 5(1):83-9. [Medline].

  37. Bandera A, Ferrario G, Saresella M, et al. CD4+ T cell depletion, immune activation and increased production of regulatory T cells in the thymus of HIV-infected individuals.PLoS One . 2010 May 24. 5(5):e10788. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  38. Franco JM, Rubio A, Martínez-Moya M, et al. T-cell repopulation and thymic volume in HIV-1-infected adult patients after highly active antiretroviral therapy.Blood . 2002 May 15. 99(10):3702-6. [Medline].

  39. Mohri H, Perelson AS, Tung K, et al. Increased turnover of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection and its reduction by antiretroviral therapy.J Exp Med . 2001 Nov 5. 194(9):1277-87. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  40. Bird JJ, Brown DR, Mullen AC, et al. Helper T cell differentiation is controlled by the cell cycle.Immunity . 1998 Aug. 9(2):229-37. [Medline].

  41. Re F, Braaten D, Franke EK, Luban J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting the activation of p34cdc2-cyclin B.J Virol . 1995 Nov. 69(11):6859-64. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  42. Keating SM, Golub ET, Nowicki M, et al. The effect of HIV infection and HAART on inflammatory biomarkers in a population-based cohort of women.AIDS . 2011 Sep 24. 25(15):1823-32. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  43. Landires I, Bugault F, Lambotte O, et al. HIV infection perturbs interleukin-7 signaling at the step of STAT5 nuclear relocalization.AIDS . 2011 Sep 24. 25(15):1843-53. [Medline].

  44. Lederman MM. Immune restoration and CD4+ T-cell function with antiretroviral therapies.AIDS . 2001 Feb. 15 Suppl 2:S11-5. [Medline].

  45. Finkel TH, Tudor-Williams G, Banda NK, et al. Apoptosis occurs predominantly in bystander cells and not in productively infected cells of HIV- and SIV-infected lymph nodes.Nat Med . 1995 Feb. 1(2):129-34. [Medline].

  46. Liu R, Paxton WA, Choe S, et al. Homozygous defect in HIV-1 coreceptor accounts for resistance of some multiply-exposed individuals to HIV-1 infection.Cell . 1996 Aug 9. 86(3):367-77. [Medline].

  47. Samson M, Libert F, Doranz BJ, et al. Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene.Nature . 1996 Aug 22. 382(6593):722-5. [Medline].

  48. Poropatich K, Sullivan DJ Jr. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long-term non-progressors: the viral, genetic and immunological basis for disease non-progression.J Gen Virol . 2011 Feb. 92:247-68. [Medline].

  49. van der Ende ME, Schutten M, Raschdorff B, et al. CD4 T cells remain the major source of HIV-1 during end stage disease.AIDS . 1999 Jun 18. 13(9):1015-9. [Medline].

  50. Allers K, Hutter G, Hofmann J, et al. Evidence for the cure of HIV infection by CCR5?32/?32 stem cell transplantation.Blood . 2011 Mar 10. 117(10):2791-9. [Medline].

  51. Kostense S, Raaphorst FM, Notermans DW, et al. Diversity of the T-cell receptor BV repertoire in HIV-1-infected patients reflects the biphasic CD4+ T-cell repopulation kinetics during highly active antiretroviral therapy.AIDS . 1998 Dec 24. 12(18):F235-40. [Medline].

  52. McCune JM. The dynamics of CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV disease.Nature . 2001 Apr 19. 410(6831):974-9. [Medline].

  53. Teixeira L, Valdez H, McCune JM, et al. Poor CD4 T cell restoration after suppression of HIV-1 replication may reflect lower thymic function.AIDS . 2001 Sep 28. 15(14):1749-56. [Medline].

  54. Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Demarest JF, et al. HIV infection is active and progressive in lymphoid tissue during the clinically latent stage of disease.Nature . 1993 Mar 25. 362(6418):355-8. [Medline].

  55. Vago L, Antonacci MC, Cristina S, et al. Morphogenesis, evolution and prognostic significance of lymphatic tissue lesions in HIV infection.Appl Pathol . 1989. 7(5):298-309. [Medline].

  56. Edén A, Fuchs D, Hagberg L, et al. HIV-1 viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid of subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment.J Infect Dis . 2010 Dec 15. 202(12):1819-25. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  57. Karris MY, Anderson CM, Morris SR, Smith DM, Little SJ. Cost savings associated with testing of antibodies, antigens, and nucleic acids for diagnosis of acute HIV infection.J Clin Microbiol . 2012 Jun. 50(6):1874-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  58. Pruss D, Bushman FD, Wolffe AP. Human immunodeficiency virus integrase directs integration to sites of severe DNA distortion within the nucleosome core.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1994 Jun 21. 91(13):5913-7. [Medline].

  59. Schröder AR, Shinn P, Chen H, Berry C, Ecker JR, Bushman F. HIV-1 integration in the human genome favors active genes and local hotspots.Cell . 2002 Aug 23. 110(4):521-9. [Medline].

  60. Blankson JN, Persaud D, Siliciano RF. The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection.Annu Rev Med . 2002. 53:557-93. [Medline].

  61. Chun TW, Engel D, Berrey MM, Shea T, Corey L, Fauci AS. Early establishment of a pool of latently infected, resting CD4(+) T cells during primary HIV-1 infection.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1998 Jul 21. 95(15):8869-73. [Medline].

  62. Ho DD, Moudgil T, Alam M. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the blood of infected persons.N Engl J Med . 1989 Dec 14. 321(24):1621-5. [Medline].

  63. Saez-Cirion A, Lacabaratz C, Lambotte O, et al. HIV controllers exhibit potent CD8 T cell capacity to suppress HIV infection ex vivo and peculiar cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation phenotype.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2007 Apr 17. 104(16):6776-81. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  64. Kaul R, Plummer FA, Kimani J, et al. HIV-1-specific mucosal CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1-resistant prostitutes in Nairobi.J Immunol . 2000 Feb 1. 164(3):1602-11. [Medline].

  65. Alimonti JB, Kimani J, Matu L, et al. Characterization of CD8 T-cell responses in HIV-1-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya.Immunol Cell Biol . 2006 Oct. 84(5):482-5. [Medline].

  66. Alter G, Heckerman D, Schneidewind A, et al. HIV-1 adaptation to NK-cell-mediated immune pressure.Nature . 2011 Aug 3. 476(7358):96-100. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  67. Zoufaly A, an der Heiden M, Kollan C, et al. Clinical outcome of HIV-infected patients with discordant virological and immunological response to antiretroviral therapy.J Infect Dis . 2011 Feb 1. 203(3):364-71. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  68. Mills EJ, Bakanda C, Birungi J, Yaya S, Ford N. The prognostic value of baseline CD4 cell count beyond 6 months of antiretroviral therapy in HIV positive patients in Uganda.AIDS . 2012 Apr 21. [Medline].

  69. Ezeamama AE, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, et al. HIV infection and the incidence of malaria among HIV-exposed children from Tanzania.J Infect Dis . 2012 May 15. 205(10):1486-94. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  70. Lambert-Niclot S, Tubiana R, Beaudoux C, et al. Detection of HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma samples from treated patients with undetectable HIV-1 RNA in blood plasma on a 2002-2011 survey.AIDS . 2012 May 15. 26(8):971-5. [Medline].

  71. Scherzer R, Estrella M, Li Y, et al. Association of tenofovir exposure with kidney disease risk in HIV infection.AIDS . 2012 Apr 24. 26(7):867-75. [Medline].

  72. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2006. Atlanta:. 2008. Available at

  73. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence and awareness of HIV infection among men who have sex with men --- 21 cities, United States, 2008.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2010 Sep 24. 59(37):1201-7. [Medline].

  74. Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports; vol 58 no 19. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Available at Accessed: June 21, 2011.

  75. Vital Signs: HIV Infection, Testing, and Risk Behaviors Among Youths - United States.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2012 Nov 30. 61(47):971-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  76. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. AIDS Epidemic Update: November 2009. Available at Accessed: June 17, 2011.

  77. Ng M, Gakidou E, Levin-Rector A, Khera A, Murray CJ, Dandona L. Assessment of population-level effect of Avahan, an HIV-prevention initiative in India.Lancet . 2011 Nov 5. 378(9803):1643-52. [Medline].

  78. Creswell JD, Myers HF, Cole SW, Irwin MR. Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: a small randomized controlled trial.Brain Behav Immun . 2009 Feb. 23(2):184-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  79. Cao Y, Qin L, Zhang L, Safrit J, Ho DD. Virologic and immunologic characterization of long-term survivors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.N Engl J Med . 1995 Jan 26. 332(4):201-8. [Medline].

  80. Levy JA. HIV pathogenesis and long-term survival.AIDS . 1993 Nov. 7(11):1401-10. [Medline].

  81. Pantaleo G, Menzo S, Vaccarezza M, et al. Studies in subjects with long-term nonprogressive human immunodeficiency virus infection.N Engl J Med . 1995 Jan 26. 332(4):209-16. [Medline].

  82. Paroli M, Propato A, Accapezzato D, Francavilla V, Schiaffella E, Barnaba V. The immunology of HIV-infected long-term non-progressors--a current view.Immunol Lett . 2001 Nov 1. 79(1-2):127-9. [Medline].

  83. Nesheim SR, Kapogiannis BG, Soe MM, et al. Trends in opportunistic infections in the pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras among HIV-infected children in the Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study, 1986-2004.Pediatrics . 2007 Jul. 120(1):100-9. [Medline].

  84. Sackoff JE, Hanna DB, Pfeiffer MR, Torian LV. Causes of death among persons with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: New York City.Ann Intern Med . 2006 Sep 19. 145(6):397-406. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  85. Palella FJ Jr, Baker RK, Moorman AC, et al. Mortality in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: changing causes of death and disease in the HIV outpatient study.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2006 Sep. 43(1):27-34. [Medline].

  86. Brooks M. Low Level HIV Viremia a Modifiable Risk Factor for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Medscape Medical News. Available at Accessed: March 12, 2014.

  87. Achenbach CJ, Buchanan AL, Cole SR, Hou L, Mugavero MJ, Crane

    HM, et al. HIV viremia and incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients successfully treated with antiretroviral therapy.Clin Infect Dis . 2014 Feb 12. [Medline].

  88. [Guideline] Brooks M. New CDC HIV Testing Recommendations Offer Faster Diagnosis.Medscape Medical News . Jun 26 2014. [Full Text].

  89. [Guideline] CDC. Laboratory Testing for the Diagnosis of HIV Infection: Updated Recommendations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at Accessed: Jul 7 2014.

  90. Barclay L. ACOG Guidelines Recommend Repeat HIV Screening, Prophylaxis. Medscape Medical News. Available at Accessed: May 3, 2014.

  91. [Guideline] Committee Opinion No 596: Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening.Obstet Gynecol . 2014 May. 123(5):1137-1139. [Medline].

  92. Skwarecki B. ACOG updates recommendations for prenatal HIV testing. Available at:. Medscape Medical News. WebMD Inc. Available at May 27, 2015;

  93. [Guideline] American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee opinion no: 635: prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing: expanded recommendations.Obstet Gynecol . 2015 Jun. 125 (6):1544-7. [Medline].

  94. Torian LV, Eavey JJ, Punsalang AP, et al. HIV type 2 in New York City, 2000-2008.Clin Infect Dis . 2010 Dec 1. 51(11):1334-42. [Medline].

  95. Claassen CW, Diener-West M, Mehta SH, Thomas DL, Kirk GD. Discordance Between CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Counts and Percentages in HIV-Infected Persons With Liver Fibrosis.Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Jun. 54(12):1806-13. [Medline].

  96. Detection of Acute HIV Infection in Two Evaluations of a New HIV Diagnostic Testing Algorithm - United States, 2011-2013.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2013 Jun 21. 62(24):489-94. [Medline].

  97. Hull MW, Rollet K, Odueyungbo A, et al. Factors associated with discordance between absolute CD4 cell count and CD4 cell percentage in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus.Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Jun. 54(12):1798-805. [Medline].

  98. Hoffmann CJ, Brown TT. Thyroid function abnormalities in HIV-infected patients.Clin Infect Dis . 2007 Aug 15. 45(4):488-94. [Medline].

  99. Lee PL, Yiannoutsos CT, Ernst T, et al. A multi-center 1H MRS study of the AIDS dementia complex: validation and preliminary analysis.J Magn Reson Imaging . 2003 Jun. 17(6):625-33. [Medline].

  100. Bucy RP, Hockett RD, Derdeyn CA, et al. Initial increase in blood CD4(+) lymphocytes after HIV antiretroviral therapy reflects redistribution from lymphoid tissues.J Clin Invest . 1999 May 15. 103(10):1391-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  101. Pakker NG, Notermans DW, de Boer RJ, et al. Biphasic kinetics of peripheral blood T cells after triple combination therapy in HIV-1 infection: a composite of redistribution and proliferation.Nat Med . 1998 Feb. 4(2):208-14. [Medline].

  102. Masia M, Padilla S, Alvarez D, et al. Risk, predictors, and mortality associated with non-AIDS events in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients: role of antiretroviral therapy.AIDS . 2013 Jan 14. 27(2):181-9. [Medline].

  103. Barclay L. HIV: guidelines stress role of primary care in management.Medscape Medical News . November 14, 2013. [Full Text].

  104. Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Ghanem KG, Emmanuel P, Zingman BS, Horberg MA. Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected With HIV: 2013 Update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.Clin Infect Dis . 2013 Nov 13. [Medline].

  105. Simard EP, Engels EA. Cancer as a cause of death among people with AIDS in the United States.Clin Infect Dis . 2010 Oct 15. 51(8):957-62. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  106. Shiels MS, Pfeiffer RM, Gail MH, et al. Cancer burden in the HIV-infected population in the United States.J Natl Cancer Inst . 2011 May 4. 103(9):753-62. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  107. Puhan MA, Van Natta ML, Palella FJ, Addessi A, Meinert C. Excess mortality in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: temporal changes and risk factors.Clin Infect Dis . 2010 Oct 15. 51(8):947-56. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  108. [Guideline] Canavan N. New HIV Treatment Guidelines to Cut Millions of Deaths.Medscape Medical News . Jul 1 2013. [Full Text].

  109. [Guideline] World Health Organization. Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection. Jun 2013. [Full Text].

  110. [Guideline] Keller DM. New HIV Guidelines Address Broad Range of Medical Conditions.Medscape Medical News . Oct 24 2013. [Full Text].

  111. [Guideline] EACS. European AIDS Clinical Society Guidelines, version 7.0. Oct 2013. [Full Text].

  112. Sterne JA, May M, Costagliola D, et al. Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in AIDS-free HIV-1-infected patients: a collaborative analysis of 18 HIV cohort studies.Lancet . 2009 Apr 18. 373(9672):1352-63. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  113. Severe P, Juste MA, Ambroise A, et al. Early versus standard antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected adults in Haiti.N Engl J Med . 2010 Jul 15. 363(3):257-65. [Medline].

  114. Cain LE, Logan R, Robins JM, et al. When to initiate combined antiretroviral therapy to reduce mortality and AIDS-defining illness in HIV-infected persons in developed countries: an observational study.Ann Intern Med . 2011 Apr 19. 154(8):509-15. [Medline].

  115. US Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. NIH News.Starting Antiretroviral Therapy Earlier Yields Better Clinical Outcomes . June 8, 2009.

  116. Hecht FM, Wang L, Collier A, et al. A multicenter observational study of the potential benefits of initiating combination antiretroviral therapy during acute HIV infection.J Infect Dis . 2006 Sep 15. 194(6):725-33. [Medline].

  117. Hecht FM, Wellman R, Busch MP, et al. Identifying the early post-HIV antibody seroconversion period.J Infect Dis . 2011 Aug 15. 204(4):526-33. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  118. Smith M. Antiviral group: 'Biomedical' tx could slow HIV.MedPage Today . July 21, 2014. [Full Text].

  119. [Guideline] Günthard HF, Aberg JA, Eron JJ, for the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection: 2014 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel.JAMA . 2014 Jul 23-30. 312(4):410-25. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  120. Rhee SY, Taylor J, Fessel WJ, et al. HIV-1 protease mutations and protease inhibitor cross-resistance.Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 2010 Oct. 54(10):4253-61. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  121. Lennox JL, DeJesus E, Lazzarin A, et al. Safety and efficacy of raltegravir-based versus efavirenz-based combination therapy in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 infection: a multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial.Lancet . 2009 Sep 5. 374(9692):796-806. [Medline].

  122. Rockstroh JK, DeJesus E, Lennox JL, et al. Durable efficacy and safety of raltegravir versus efavirenz when combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients: final 5-year results from STARTMRK.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2013 May 1. 63(1):77-85. [Medline].

  123. Raffi F, Rachlis A, Stellbrink HJ, Hardy WD, Torti C, Orkin C, et al. Once-daily dolutegravir versus raltegravir in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection: 48 week results from the randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority SPRING-2 study.Lancet . 2013 Mar 2. 381(9868):735-43. [Medline].

  124. Walmsley S, Antela A, Clumeck N, et al. Dolutegravir (DTG; S/GSK1349572) + Abacavir/Lamivudine Once Daily Statistically Superior to Tenofovir/Emtricitabine/Efavirenz: 48-Week Results - SINGLE (ING114467).Abstract presented at: 52nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) . Sept 2012. Abstract H-556b:

  125. Cahn P, Pozniak AL, Mingrone H, Shuldyakov A, Brites C, Andrade-Villanueva JF, et al. Dolutegravir versus raltegravir in antiretroviral-experienced, integrase-inhibitor-naive adults with HIV: week 48 results from the randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority SAILING study.Lancet . 2013 Jul 2. [Medline].

  126. Nichols G, Mills A, Grossberg R, et al. Antiviral Activity of Dolutegravir in Subjects With Failure on an Integrase Inhibitor–Based Regimen: Week 24 Phase 3 Results From VIKING-3.Poster presented at: 11th International Congress on Drug Therapy in HIV Infection . Nov 2012. Poster O232:

  127. Ndembi N, Goodall RL, Dunn DT, et al. Viral rebound and emergence of drug resistance in the absence of viral load testing: a randomized comparison between zidovudine-lamivudine plus Nevirapine and zidovudine-lamivudine plus Abacavir.J Infect Dis . 2010 Jan 1. 201(1):106-13. [Medline].

  128. Sax PE, DeJesus E, Mills A, et al. Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir versus co-formulated efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial, analysis of results after 48 weeks.Lancet . 2012 Jun 30. 379(9835):2439-48. [Medline].

  129. DeJesus E, Rockstroh JK, Henry K, et al. Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus ritonavir-boosted atazanavir plus co-formulated emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.Lancet . 2012 Jun 30. 379(9835):2429-38. [Medline].

  130. McMahon DK, Zheng L, Hitti J, Chan ES, Halvas EK, Hong F, et al. Greater Suppression of Nevirapine Resistance With 21- vs 7-Day Antiretroviral Regimens After Intrapartum Single-Dose Nevirapine for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.Clin Infect Dis . 2013 Apr. 56(7):1044-51. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  131. Spector SA, McKinley GF, Lalezari JP, et al. Oral ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in persons with AIDS. Roche Cooperative Oral Ganciclovir Study Group.N Engl J Med . 1996 Jun 6. 334(23):1491-7. [Medline].

  132. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on tuberculosis incidence among HIV-positive patients in high-income countries.Clin Infect Dis . 2012 May. 54(9):1364-72. [Medline].

  133. Falutz J, Potvin D, Mamputu JC, et al. Effects of tesamorelin, a growth hormone-releasing factor, in HIV-infected patients with abdominal fat accumulation: a randomized placebo-controlled trial with a safety extension.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2010 Mar 1. 53(3):311-22. [Medline].

  134. Falutz J, Allas S, Blot K, Potvin D, Kotler D, Somero M, et al. Metabolic effects of a growth hormone-releasing factor in patients with HIV.N Engl J Med . 2007 Dec 6. 357(23):2359-70. [Medline].

  135. Falutz J, Mamputu JC, Potvin D, Moyle G, Soulban G, Loughrey H, et al. Effects of tesamorelin (TH9507), a growth hormone-releasing factor analog, in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with excess abdominal fat: a pooled analysis of two multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled phase 3 trials with safety extension data.J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2010 Sep. 95(9):4291-304. [Medline].

  136. Stanley TL, Falutz J, Marsolais C, et al. Reduction in visceral adiposity is associated with an improved metabolic profile in HIV-infected patients receiving tesamorelin.Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Jun. 54(11):1642-51. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  137. Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Wald A, Hughes JP, Thomas KK, Mujugira A, et al. Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.Lancet . 2010 Mar 6. 375(9717):824-33. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  138. Ruel TD, Boivin MJ, Boal HE, et al. Neurocognitive and motor deficits in HIV-infected Ugandan children with high CD4 cell counts.Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Apr. 54(7):1001-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  139. [Guideline] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Institutes of Health, American Academy of HIV Medicine, Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, et al. Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014: Summary for Clinical Providers. 2014. Available at

  140. Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, Celum C, Mugo N, Were E, et al. Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study.Lancet Infect Dis . 2011 Oct 3. [Medline].

  141. Marazzi MC, Palombi L, Nielsen-Saines K, et al. Extended antenatal use of triple antiretroviral therapy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 correlates with favorable pregnancy outcomes.AIDS . 2011 Aug 24. 25(13):1611-8. [Medline].

  142. Burgard M, Jasseron C, Matheron S, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-2 infection from 1986 to 2007 in the ANRS French Perinatal Cohort EPF-CO1.Clin Infect Dis . 2010 Oct 1. 51(7):833-43. [Medline].

  143. Rerks-Ngarm S, Pitisuttithum P, Nitayaphan S, et al. Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to prevent HIV-1 infection in Thailand.N Engl J Med . 2009 Dec 3. 361(23):2209-20. [Medline].

  144. Robb ML, Rerks-Ngarm S, Nitayaphan S, et al. Risk behaviour and time as covariates for efficacy of the HIV vaccine regimen ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E: a post-hoc analysis of the Thai phase 3 efficacy trial RV 144.Lancet Infect Dis . 2012 Jul. 12(7):531-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  145. Brooks M. CDC updates HIV preexposure prophylaxis guidelines.Medscape Medical News . May 14, 2014. [Full Text].

  146. Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States – 2014 Clinical Practice Guideline.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . May 2014. Available at

  147. Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men.N Engl J Med . 2010 Dec 30. 363(27):2587-99. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  148. Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy.N Engl J Med . 2011 Aug 11. 365(6):493-505. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  149. Choopanya K, Martin M, Suntharasam P, Sangkum U, Mock P, Leethochawalit M, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.Lancet . 2013. 2083-90.

  150. Leibowitz AA, Parker KB, Rotheram-Borus MJ. A US Policy Perspective on Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV.Am J Public Health . 2011 Jun. 101(6):982-5. [Medline].

  151. Interim guidance: preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in men who have sex with men.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2011 Jan 28. 60(3):65-8. [Medline].

  152. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Last updated February 22, 2011. HIV/AIDS - Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). [Full Text].

  153. [Guideline] Marrazzo JM, del Rio C, Holtgrave DR, et al, for the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. HIV prevention in clinical care settings: 2014 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel.JAMA . 2014 Jul 23-30. 312(4):390-409. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  154. Ruiz L, van Lunzen J, Arno A, et al. Protease inhibitor-containing regimens compared with nucleoside analogues alone in the suppression of persistent HIV-1 replication in lymphoid tissue.AIDS . 1999 Jan 14. 13(1):F1-8. [Medline].

  155. Mounzer K, Palella F, Slim J, et al. SPIRIT: Simplifying to rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir Df single-tablet regimen from boosted protease inhibitor regimen maintains HIV suppression in the black subgroup [abstract H-656]. Presented at: The 53rd Interscience Conference onAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC); September 11, 2013; Denver, Colorado. [Full Text].

  156. Kling J. Single-tablet HIV regimen effective.Medscape Medical News . September 19, 2013. [Full Text].

  157. Tucker ME. FDA OKs New Triple-Combination Pill (Triumeq) for HIV.Medscape Medical News . Aug 22 2014. [Full Text].

  158. Barclay L. Men With HIV Have Higher Risk, Greater Extent of CAD. Medscape Medical News. Available at Accessed: April 7, 2014.

  159. CDC. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention: Promoting Safe and Effective Use in the United States. CDC. Available at Accessed: 11/29/2010.

  160. [Guideline] Committee Opinion No 595: Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus.Obstet Gynecol . 2014 May. 123(5):1133-1136. [Medline].

  161. Currier JS, Stein JH. HIV and Atherosclerosis: Moving From Associations to Mechanisms and Interventions.Ann Intern Med . 2014 Apr 1. 160(7):509-10. [Medline].

  162. Freiberg MS, Chang CC, Kuller LH, Skanderson M, Lowy E, Kraemer KL, et al. HIV Infection and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction.JAMA Intern Med . 2013 Mar 4. 1-9. [Medline].

  163. Gilead. iPrEx Study Results: Public Statement. Gilead. [Full Text].

  164. Havlir DV, Bassett R, Levitan D, et al. Prevalence and predictive value of intermittent viremia with combination hiv therapy.JAMA . 2001 Jul 11. 286(2):171-9. [Medline].

  165. Hulskotte EG, Feng HP, Xuan F, van Zutven MG, Treitel MA, Hughes EA, et al. Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between the Hepatitis C Virus Protease Inhibitor Boceprevir and Ritonavir-Boosted HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors Atazanavir, Darunavir, and Lopinavir.Clin Infect Dis . 2013 Mar. 56(5):718-26. [Medline].

  166. Janeczko JL. HIV Patients Lose Seroprotection Before Vaccine Boosters Are Due.Medscape . Jan 24 2014. [Full Text].

  167. Kerneis S, Launay O, Turbelin C, et al. Long-term immune responses to vaccination in HIV-infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Clin Infect Dis . 2014 Jan 10. [Medline].

  168. Masiá M, Padilla S, Alvarez D, et al. Risk, predictors, and mortality associated with non-AIDS events in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients: role of antiretroviral therapy.AIDS . 2013 Jan 14. 27(2):181-9. [Medline].

  169. McCormack S, Ramjee G, Kamali A, et al. PRO2000 vaginal gel for prevention of HIV-1 infection (Microbicides Development Programme 301): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial.Lancet . 2010 Oct 16. 376(9749):1329-37. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  170. Post WS, Budoff M, Kingsley L, Palella FJ Jr, Witt MD, Li X, et al. Associations Between HIV Infection and Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis.Ann Intern Med . 2014 Apr 1. 160(7):458-67. [Medline].

  171. [Guideline] World Health Organization. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: Treatment guidelines for a public health approach: 2003 revision. World Health Organization, Geneva 2004. Available at

Similar articles: